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White-tailed Deer Breeding Season Winding Down

12-10-14  antler rub 195 The breeding season of White-tailed Deer extends from late October to mid-December. Fresh buck rubs, where bucks literally rub the velvet off of their antlers as well as communicate with other deer via their scent, can be found throughout this period of time.

Mature bucks make two distinct types of visual and olfactory signposts —early-season and breeding rubs. The early-season scraping of antlers builds up neck and shoulder muscles, designates a buck’s territory (both visually and by scent deposited from forehead glands) and releases aggression caused by rising testosterone levels. Later in the season, once the rut begins, bucks move out of their home ranges into doe territory, where they make breeding rubs. These rubs announce the bucks’ presence to does, and are thought to hormonally suppress small bucks to the point where their testosterone levels stay so low that they do not attempt to mate.

When a deer or moose strips bark off a tree to eat it, the de-barked area is torn only at one end — the deer grabs one end of the strip of bark and tears it off of the tree. The rubbing of an antler leaves ragged bits of bark at both the top and bottom of the rub. Staghorn Sumac, as pictured, is a favorite rubbing substrate.

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Snowfleas Appearing

snowfleas 049A7533One rarely even thinks about snowfleas (a species of springtail, Hypogastrura nivicola) until snow falls and then starts to melt. This is when these tiny wingless arthropods that catapult themselves through the air with the aid of a fork-like structure, or furcular, seem to magically appear out of nowhere. They actually are present year round, but their dark color makes them visible against the white snow.

The great majority of snowfleas live in soil, feeding on fungi, algae, decaying plant matter and bacteria. They work their way to the surface of the snow, crawling up the trunks of trees, plant stems and side of rocks where an open channel allows their migration. Thousands can be found on melting snow, especially in tracks or other depressions. No-one is absolutely sure of why they exhibit this behavior, though some scientists feel that these migrations are triggered by overcrowding and lack of food. Eventually those that survive on top of the snow make a return trip down into the soil.

Formerly classified as insects, snowfleas are now categorized as hexapods, due to some features they have which insects do not.

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Ruffed Grouse Nostril Feathers

12-16-14 ruffed grouse nostrils IMG_2376Ruffed Grouse have adapted to cold winter months in a number of ways, from growing “snowshoe” pectinations on their toes to having their legs covered with fine feathers. Equally effective are the feathers covering a grouse’s nostrils, which are thought to heat cold air as the bird breathes in. (Thanks to Sara and Warren Demont for photo op.)

Black Bears Still Active

12-15-14  bear track in snow 049A7902While some, perhaps most, black bears have entered hibernation in northern New England by now, there are still some active individuals, probably males, who are finding enough food to delay denning. Typically a scarcity of food and cold weather trigger the reduction in the metabolism of a black bear, which signals the onset of hibernation. If the weather remains relatively warm and/or there is a large supply of beechnuts and/or acorns, signs of bears can occasionally be found even this late in the year. While there have been a few years when black bears have been sighted throughout the winter, most wildlife biologists say that it is safe to put up bird feeders in December, as sunflower seed-loving bears have usually retreated to their den sites by now. The pictured tracks and scat discovered in the past few days in central Vermont challenges that assumption (as does the stolen bird feeder). (Thanks to Erin Donahue and Charlie Berger for photo op – sensitive fern fertile frond for size comparison)

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teasel 066Teasel is an introduced biennial, considered an invasive plant in the U. S. due to its ability to crowd out native species. Nonetheless, the seed head that remains after the three- to eight-foot plant has flowered is strikingly beautiful. It consists of a cone of spine-tipped, hard bracts, or modified leaves. Since the Middle Ages, Europeans have used dried seed heads of the teasel plant to raise the nap on woolen cloth. Teasing wool creates a soft, almost furry texture on one side of the cloth. (Baize, the cloth traditionally used to cover pool and card tables, is a classic example of wool that has been teased.)

Because of the demand for these seed heads, farmers in 19th century New England grew fields of teasel, with each acre yielding up to 150,000 heads. In the autumn, they would be harvested and dried. Teasel heads wore out quite quickly with use, so wool manufacturers needed a constant supply of them. Eventually a machine, the “teasel gig,” replaced the seed heads. Today fine combs with steel wires raise the fibers on teased fabrics, although the consensus is that there is still no substitute for teasel heads in producing the finest cloth.

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Wild Turkeys’ Struggle for Food Begins

wild turkey in snow121Wild Turkeys do not migrate. During the winter they often separate into three distinct groups — adult males (toms), young males (jakes) and females (hens) of all ages — and spend their days seeking out plant (90 percent of diet) and animal (10 percent of diet) matter. In the summer, greens and insects make up much of their diet; in the winter, Wild Turkeys rely heavily on acorns, beechnuts, crabapples and hawthorn fruit, as well as agricultural grains such as corn, buckwheat, soybeans and oats.

The winter survival of Wild Turkeys depends much more on snow conditions that impact the procuring of food than on the temperature. While research has shown that turkeys can tolerate very cold temperatures, they need adequate food to keep from losing significant body weight and eventually starving to death. In parts of northern New England, the current Nor’easter has dumped a large amount of deep, loose fluffy snow, which turkeys can’t walk on or dig through in order to reach nutritious nuts. For this reason, turkeys frequently seek out agricultural fields that are windblown and provide relatively easy access to grains.

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Naturally Curious Calendar Order Deadline

2015 Calendars :  $30 (includes shipping) To order, email me at

2015 Calendars : $30 (includes shipping)
To order, email me at

If you would like to order a Naturally Curious calendar, the deadline for submitting orders is midnight tonight, December 9th. Thanks to all of you who have already placed an order!


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