Have you noticed a fuzzy-looking, pinkish-gray border of flowers roughly a foot high, lining the sides of the roads you travel? Rabbit-foot Clover (Trifolium arvense) is easy to distinguish from other plants because of its exceptionally hairy flowerheads and trifoliate leaves (leaves divided into three leaflets). This member of the legume/pea/bean family derives its common name from the resemblance of its flowerhead to a rabbit’s foot, due to the abundance of hairs which protect the flower and help the fruit disperse in the wind. Unlike some clovers which are perennial, Rabbit-foot Clover is an annual species found growing in sunny, sandy disturbed areas, such as the shoulders of roads. It was introduced from Europe and can be toxic to livestock.
Painted Turtle eggs hatch in late August or early September. The young turtles remain in their nest for varying amounts of time, often emerging soon after hatching but frequently not until the following spring in the northern part of their range. Once hatched and out of the nest, they head to ponds and rivers. Because they’re so small (roughly the size of a quarter) they are vulnerable to a wide variety of predators, including frogs, snakes, birds and fish.
This slimy, purple mushroom belongs to the genus Cortinarius, the largest genus of mushrooms in the world. Mushrooms in this genus have partial veils, or cortinas – tissue that covers and protects the spore-producing gills, and they also have a rusty brown spore print and mature gills.
While it is relatively simple to determine that a mushroom is in this genus, identifying one down to species can be difficult. Two identical-looking species, C. iodes and C. iodeoides, can be found in the Northeast – both are purple and have slimy caps. Mycologists distinguish them by the size of their spores. For those more daring than I, there is a licking/taste test — the slime on C. iodeoides is said to be more bitter tasting than that of C. iodes.
Both species are mycorrhizal with oaks, in that both benefit from an association with each other. The mushroom helps the tree absorb water and nutrients while the tree provides sugars and amino acids to the mushroom. It is estimated that about 85% of plants depend on mycorrhizal relationships with fungi.
By the end of August, White-tailed Deer fawns are about three months old. Their mother weans them between two and four months of age and during this time they molt, losing their white spots. A new gray-brown winter coat replaces the coat they were born with.
Pollinators of the plant known as Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) are too many to list. The nectar and pollen of its fragrant flowers which bloom in late summer and fall attract many kinds of insects, including bees, flies, wasps, butterflies, and beetles. Being a member of the Composite family, Boneset’s flower structure is such that the nectar is very accessible and therefore a popular feeding site, especially for Honey Bees (see photo) which are reliant this time of year upon the flat-topped clusters of small, white flowers for nectar which they convert to honey and store for their winter supply of food.
Every year in late July or August a young Spring Peeper crosses my path and I cannot resist photographing it. At this time of year they are roughly the size of a Japanese Beetle, and during early mornings and late afternoons can be found in shrubbery where they intermittently rest in the shade and feed on insects even smaller than themselves. If you live near a pond where it sounded like sleigh bells were ringing last spring, keep an eye out for these irresistible frogs that are no bigger than your tiny finger nail.
Muskrats are primarily herbivorous. The majority of their diet consists of the tubers, roots, stems, leaves and fruit of a variety of aquatic and terrestrial plants, particularly those of bulrush, cattail and arrowhead. A diet of high fiber is possible because of bacterial fermentation which takes place in their intestines. The digestion of many herbivores is aided by bacteria, but many plant-eaters are restricted in what they can eat because they are unable to change their diet without killing the bacteria. Muskrats, however, can and do consume large amounts of meat (frogs, fish, turtles, crayfish, etc.) and still maintain a healthy population of fiber-digesting bacteria. (Thanks to Jeannie Killam for photo op.)