Usually animals that have been killed don’t last long enough for humans to discover them unless the human disturbs the predator right after it’s killed its prey. This may well have been the case when I came upon this Woodland Jumping Mouse. It is actually fairly unusual to set eyes on a jumping mouse, dead or alive, as they are quite secretive. This remarkable one-ounce rodent has long hind feet and a distinctly long tail, which makes up more than half of its total length of eight to ten inches. Using its hind limbs for propulsion and its tail for balance, the Woodland Jumping Mouse is able to make large leaps of up to eight feet or more to escape danger. (More often it walks around on all fours, or uses short hops for greater speed.) Another survival strategy that jumping mice use is to remain motionless for up to several hours, relying on their coloration and cover for protection. Apparently neither adaptive behavior was effective enough to spare this mouse’s life.
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Abbott’s Sphinx Moth larvae feed on grape and Virginia creeper leaves during the night. During the day they tend to rest on the woody vines of the plants they are eating, and because they are well camouflaged, they remain hidden from most humans’ eyes. Both as larvae and adults, these moths are well equipped for survival. Older larvae have two color forms, one resembling unripe green grapes (in photo), and the other is brown and looks much like a branch. In their last stage, or instar, both forms have a rear eyespot which looks like a human eye, right down to the white reflection spot in it, which scares off potential predators. If the caterpillar is pinched or prodded, it squeaks and tries to bite the attacker. The adult moths, which emerge next summer after pupating all winter, also defend themselves with both color and behavior. They are brown with yellow bands on their underwings, which make them look something like a bumblebee, and when they fly, they create a buzzing noise. (Thanks to Heidi, Tom and Simmy Wetmore for photo op.)
The larvae of moths and butterflies are very susceptible to predation, especially by birds, and they utilize many different strategies to protect themselves. Shapes, colors and behavior all contribute to their survival. Some larvae take on the appearance of less appetizing things, such as bird droppings, twigs or leaves. Some have large eye spots which presumably scare predators. Others have cryptic coloration which makes them all but invisible. The pictured green caterpillar uses both color and behavior to visually disappear on the fern it is consuming.