Luna Moths, Actias luna, are known for their hindwings’ beautiful, long, green tails. These tails are not simply decorative, nor is their primary function to attract a mate (pheromones do that). A recent study found that Big Brown Bats have an easier time catching Luna Moths that have lost their tails. Further research revealed that Luna Moths defend themselves from voracious bats patrolling the night air by spinning the tips of their two wing tails in circles. The twisting tails of the moth act like a sonar shield, interfering with the bat’s means of locating them – echolocation. In contrast with the stronger, ever-changing echoes coming off of the moths’ large flapping wings, the twisted shape of the tails create a persistent weak echo signal. According to researchers, this could make the insects trickier to catch, and harder to track as they fly.
Northern short-tailed shrews, with their short legs, minute eyes and concealed ears, can be found throughout eastern and central U.S. Their eyesight is so poor that all they can do is to detect light, but they compensate by using echolocation for navigation and to locate earthworms, slugs, snails and other invertebrates which comprise their diet. The northern short-tailed shrew and the European water shrew are the only mammals that produce a toxic secretion in their salivary glands. This poison is powerful enough to kill small mammals, but is mainly used to immobilize smaller prey. In winter, although active, the short-tailed shrew limits its activity in order to conserve energy, and relies partially on food that it stored in its burrow in the fall.