An online resource based on the award-winning nature guide

February

Snowshoe Hare Hind Feet

2-27  snowshoe hare back foot 011It is not hard to see why the individual toe pads in the tracks of a snowshoe hare’s feet are rarely very distinct. There is a 3/4”- thick layer of hair on the bottom of a hare’s 5- to 6-inch-long hind foot. This hair, along with the size of the foot and the ability of the hare to spread its toes to a width of five inches allows the hare to stay on or near the surface of the snow, and, in the right snow conditions, outrun heavier predators.

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Horned Larks Seeking Seeds

2-25-15 horned lark 025Horned Larks are named for the dark feathers near the back of their head that sometimes become erect and resemble horns. During the winter, these birds typically form large flocks which often include Lapland Longspurs and Snow Buntings. Horned Larks are usually found in fields where the snow has blown the ground bare, but they can also be found hunting and pecking on manure and silage piles. As they walk or run along the ground foraging for seeds on bare ground, these brown-backed birds are very well camouflaged (not so much on snow). There is a wide variation of shades of brown back feathers throughout their range, and researchers have found that their color is strongly correlated with the color of the local soil.

Horned Larks nest on prairies, deserts and agricultural land throughout much of the U.S., as well as the Arctic tundra. In another month, most of the Horned Larks overwintering in northern New England will migrate north.

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Black Bear Dens

2-25-15 bear dens1Black bears den in a range of locations, including under logs and stumps, under the branches of a fallen tree, and inside caves and hollow trees. Most adult black bears are not completely protected from the elements while they are hibernating and/or raising cubs, as there is usually a fairly large opening and the bear is exposed to the cold air. The amount of exposure can vary tremendously, from a relatively protected hollow under a log to complete exposure within a dense thicket or stand of conifers. Pictured are two black bear dens where cubs were raised; one is under a fallen tree and the other is in the middle of a stand of spruces.

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Beavers Mating

2-24-15 beaver3 IMG_3415Reproductive activity begins when a beaver reaches the age of three years. Beavers mate in January and February, with the peak activity in mid-February. Typically mating takes place in the water (under the ice), but can occur inside their lodge. Kits, usually three or four, will be born in May or June. Beavers are monogamous and pair for life. (Note: ponds still frozen – photo not recent)

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Snowshoe Hare Runs

2-23-15 hare run IMG_1978In northern New England we have hare “runs” rather than rabbit runs, but they serve the same purpose. They are well-maintained escape routes, and the snowshoe hare’s life depends on the hare’s knowing every twist and turn they take.

During the summer, hares keep their runs free of branches by pruning them back. In the winter, hares also have to prune as the snow gets higher and the runs encounter more branches. They also spend a lot of time and energy packing down the snow on these runways so they will have a clear, hard surface on which, if it’s necessary, they can make their escape. This runway construction is done by hopping up and down, progressing slowly, inch by inch. It looks like many hares have passed by, but it’s usually done by one individual and runs through its territory. Snowshoe hares are nocturnal, but during long or heavy snowstorms, they will come out and pack their run during the day.

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Vixens Screaming

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThis is the time of year when you might wake up in the middle of the night and hear a rasping, prolonged scream. It could well be a female red fox, issuing forth a “vixen scream” designed to travel long distances and attract a mate. This scream is not limited to females in heat – males also can scream, as can females at other times of the year. Once you have heard it, you will never forget this sound. Red foxes have numerous vocalizations, among which this scream and a high-pitched “bark” are the most common. You can hear several of a red fox’s more than twenty calls on this website: http://miracleofnature.org/blog/red-fox-screams (Photo by Susan Holland)

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Mystery Snow Story: Great Horned Owl Preys on Black Guillemot

Plate-219,-Black-GuillemotLet me first say that the scenario I describe is conjecture, albeit conjecture based on the evidence posted yesterday. Today’s post may well tell you more about my train of thought when interpreting signs in the snow than the actual events that took place! The tracks were discovered and photographed by Sally Grassi of Camden, Maine, who saw a large bird (I thought that telling you this would be giving away too much!) devouring something while perched on the snow at night. The tracks that may appear to some as leading to and from the kill site are marks made by something that came out of the sky – they come from and lead to nowhere. I apologize if they were misleading. Given the myriad of ways this scene could be interpreted, the guesses made were strikingly on the mark. Kudos to Kathie Fiveash, who correctly guessed the prey species.

Plot: A bird of prey attacked another bird and proceeded to consume most of it.

Characters: As to the species of predator, the fact that this activity took place at night points to an owl, and the size of the bird eaten (deduced from the size of its remaining foot and bones) narrows the attacking bird down to most likely being a Barred Owl or a Great Horned Owl, both of which are found along the coast of Maine in the winter. (Snowy Owls are diurnal and therefore, even though there are individuals that have irrupted into New England this winter, the likelihood of it being a Snowy Owl is minimal.) Although we can’t know for sure which species of owl it was, chances are great that it was a Great Horned Owl, as they routinely eat large prey, and Barred Owls only occasionally feed on birds this size.

As to the identity of the prey — the geographic location, the time of year, the few remaining feathers and the color of the remnant (unwebbed) foot and leg appear to eliminate all but the Black Guillemot. Although totally black with white wing patches during the breeding season, this alcid (member of the family of birds that includes puffins, murres and auks) has a mostly grey/white plumage in the winter, and brilliant orange-red legs and feet year round. It can be found throughout the year along the coast of New England where it hunts for fish, crustaceans and invertebrates in shallow water near shore. (Thanks to Sally Grassi for Mystery Photos, to George Clark for confirming prey I.D. and J.J.Audubon for the Black Guillemot illustration.)

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