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Flowering Plants

Grass of Parnassus Flowering

e-grass of Parnassus 008Grass of Parnassus, Parnassia glauca, (also known as Bog- Star) was named after Mount Parnassus in central Greece. It is not a type of grass, but rather, belongs to the family Celastraceae and can be found growing in fens, bogs and swamps. The striking green lines on its petals guide flies, bees and other pollinating insects to the flower’s supply of nectar.

The structure of Grass of Parnassus’s flower is not typical. In between its five functioning stamens and five petals there is a whorl of five sterile stamens, each of which is three-pronged. The spherical tip of each prong mimics a glistening droplet of nectar. These stamens do not actually produce any nectar – they are there purely to attract pollinators. The actual nectar is located near the base of these false, or sterile, stamens. Only one of the five true stamens in the flower is active at any one time, with each producing pollen on average once every 24 hours.

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Turtlehead Flowering & Being Pollinated By Bumblebees

8-14 turtlehead 073Turtlehead, Chelone glabra, a member of the Plantain family (Plantaginaceae), can be found growing along stream banks and wetlands throughout eastern North America. Its long arching upper lip, or hood, overlaps the lower lip like a turtle’s beak, giving Turtlehead its common name. The male parts of the flower mature before the female parts, and when pollen is being produced these lips are very hard to pry open. Pollinators are primarily bumblebees, which are some of the only insects that have the strength to open the flower. When the female pistil matures, the lips relax a bit, so entry is easier, but access to the nectar at the base of the flower is restricted (by a sterile stamen) to long-tongued insects. Thus, it is specifically long-tongued bumblebees that are able to both enter the flower and to reach the nectar. If you look on the sides of the flowers, occasionally you will find where impatient bumblebees have chewed through to the nectar, avoiding the struggles involved in entering the flower in the traditional manner.

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Checkered Rattlesnake Plantain Flowering

8-7 downy rattlesnake plantain 083Checkered Rattlesnake Plantain (Goodyera tesselata) is an evergreen plant (each leaf lives for about four years) belonging to the Orchid family. It has broad, rounded leaves (like plantain) that bear a design somewhat reminiscent of snake skin. For the latter reason, it was used by Native Americans to treat snakebites. Botanists think it must have been used on bites from non-poisonous snakes, for medicinally it does not cure a venomous snake bite.

This species is quite similar to Downy Rattlesnake Plantain (G.pubescens), the most common species of rattlesnake plantain in New England, but its leaves lack the broad white stripe down the middle and its flowers as not as tightly clustered. At this time of year Checkered Rattlesnake Plantain’s tall flower stalk is bedecked with tiny, delicate, white orchids, each the size of a baby finger nail, which are well worth examining through a hand lens.

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Watershield Flowering

7-29-15  watershield 008Watershield is a perennial aquatic plant whose bright green, shield-shaped leaves float on the surface of shallow water in lakes and beaver ponds. Its small purple flowers bloom from June through September, with each individual flower only lasting two days. One the first day, the female flower parts (stigma, style, ovary) are mature. After receding into the water overnight, the flower re-emerges with mature male flower parts (stamens, filaments, anthers). The anthers burst open, releasing pollen to the wind, and the flower is then withdrawn below the water where the fruit develops.

The horizontal rhizomes, or stems, of Watershield, as well as the undersides of the leaves and developing buds, are covered with a thick, jelly-like slime. Botanists theorize that it may deter snails from grazing on these plants. Watershield secretes a number of chemicals that kill or inhibit growth of a wide range of bacteria, algae, and other plants.

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Twisted Stalk Fruit Maturing

twisted stalk  039Twisted Stalk’s (Streptopus amplexifolius ) name is very descriptive, for not only are the stems bent slightly where the leaves clasp them, but there is a 90-degree twist in the flower stalk after it emerges from the base of the leaves, causing the flowers to hang down from the stem. Earlier in the summer, delicate, greenish-white, bell-like flowers hung below these leaf axils. Those that were fertilized are currently developing into bright yellow-to-red fruit which make the plant obvious even in the moist, shady woods where it grows. Although considered edible by some, Twisted Stalk (also called Watermelon Berry) can be mistaken for poisonous species of plants so consumption is not recommended.

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One-flowered Wintergreen Blossoming

7-14-15  one-flowered wintergreen  249A walk in cool, moist woodlands this time of year may reward you with the sight (and smell) of One-flowered Wintergreen in bloom. The three- to six-inch-tall nodding flower has five waxy petals with rounded tips and wavy edges. Its true beauty can only be appreciated if you get down on your hands and knees and look underneath these petals. At this angle and close range, you not only can see the ten stamens and five-lobed stigma, but you can detect the flower’s delightful fragrance, which is very similar to that of Lily-of-the-Valley.

One-flowered Wintergreen’s blossom remains viable, without withering, for up to six weeks. After the flower is pollinated, the developing capsule becomes erect. Along with orchids, wintergreen seeds are the smallest in the plant kingdom – a single seed weighs around two-millionths of a gram. One-flowered Wintergreen is in the Heath family, which also includes rhododendrons, mountain laurel, azaleas, blueberries and cranberries.

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Iridescent Dogbane Beetles Emerging

7-1-15  dogbane beetle170Dogbane beetles (Chrysochus auratus) appear suddenly, usually when the plant which they consume and for which they are named is flowering. Look on the leaves and blossoms of Dogbane, or Indian Hemp, (Apocynum cannabinum) for this blue-green beetle with a metallic copper and crimson shine to it.

The iridescence is a special type of color that shines and changes as the insect changes position or we change position looking at it. It is produced by special body structures and light. The surface of the body parts of this beetle is made up of stacks of tiny, slanting plates, under which is a pigment. Some light rays reflect from the surface of the plates, and other light rays reflect from the pigment underneath. At different angles, the light reflects at different speeds, causing interference and resulting in our seeing different colors that shine.

Although all parts of this plant are toxic to humans, Dogbane is tolerated by Dogbane Beetles, whose larvae reside underground where they eat the roots of Dogbane. When they mature into adult beetles, they climb up the plant to the leaves and flowers, which they then consume.

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