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Hibernation

Queen Bumblebees Foraging

queen bumblebee 098Most bumblebees, unlike honeybees, die in the fall. Only the young, fertilized bumblebee queens overwinter. When they emerge early in the spring, each must start a new colony, with no help from worker bees. The queen builds a ball of moss, hair or grass, often in an abandoned rodent nest or small cavity. Within this ball the queen builds a wax honey pot, and provisions it with nectar from early-blooming flowers. Next, she collects pollen and forms it into a mound on the floor of her nest. She then lays eggs in the pile of pollen, and coats it with wax secreted from her body.

The queen bumblebee keeps her eggs warm by sitting on the pollen mound, and by shivering her muscles, raising her body temperature to between 98° F. and 102° F. For nourishment, she consumes honey from her wax pot, which is positioned within her reach. In four days, the eggs, all of which will become female workers, hatch. The bumblebee queen continues her maternal care, foraging for pollen and nectar to feed to her larvae until they pupate. After this first brood emerges as adult bumblebees the queen concentrates her efforts on laying eggs. Unfertilized female worker bees raise the larvae and the colony swells in number. At the end of summer, new queens (females) and males are produced in order to allow the colony to reproduce. After the new queens mate and become fertilized, the males all die, along with the female worker bees. The queen then seeks shelter for the winter. (Photo: Tri-colored Bumblebee queen collecting Trailing Arbutus nectar or pollen)

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Time To Take Down Bird Feeders

3-17-15 black bear-eating sunflower seeds  IMG_3607To prevent black bears from visiting backyard bird feeders, Fish & Wildlife Departments in New England recommend taking down birdfeeders from April 1st through December 1st. This year those dates are fairly conservative, as bears were visiting feeders after December 1st, and several have been seen frequenting feeders this month. The idea is to remove anything outdoors that would be of any interest to a bear which has just emerged from hibernation and is desperate for food.

Approximately 85% of a bear’s diet is vegetation. Before green shoots make an appearance in the spring, flower parts of aspen, willow, maple, ash and hazelnut, along with carrion, make up most of a bear’s diet. After losing 23% of its body weight during hibernation, a black bear finds protein-packed sunflower seeds very appealing. Make sure your garbage is secured, barbeques clean and pet food kept indoors, as well as your feeders. Keeping bears away not only prevents property from being damaged, but it also prevents bears from becoming nuisance animals that are habituated to food associated with humans, which often leads to the end of a bear’s life.

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Black Bear Dens

2-25-15 bear dens1Black bears den in a range of locations, including under logs and stumps, under the branches of a fallen tree, and inside caves and hollow trees. Most adult black bears are not completely protected from the elements while they are hibernating and/or raising cubs, as there is usually a fairly large opening and the bear is exposed to the cold air. The amount of exposure can vary tremendously, from a relatively protected hollow under a log to complete exposure within a dense thicket or stand of conifers. Pictured are two black bear dens where cubs were raised; one is under a fallen tree and the other is in the middle of a stand of spruces.

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Black Bears Giving Birth

1-9-14  black bear cubIMG_0391Sometime between the end of January (the full moon in January is often called the ‘bear moon’) and the first part of February black bears give birth to between one and five (usually two) tiny, blind, almost hairless one-half pound cubs, each about the size of a chipmunk. The cubs are totally dependent on their mother for food and warmth.

Most dens are exposed to the cold air, as they are located under fallen logs and brush, or are dug into a bank. Occasionally they are on the ground with little or no cover; in all of these locations, the mother acts like a furnace, enveloping her young and breathing on them to keep them warm. The cubs do not hibernate, but nap frequently. Like human mothers, black bear mothers sleep when their young sleep, and are alert when their cubs cry and let them know that they are in need of attention. (Photo taken during NH Fish & Game/Ben Kilham spring research; cub in photo is two months old)


Aquatic Frogs Hibernating in Ponds

1-9-15  green frog IMG_0181Most aquatic frogs such as this Green Frog have been deep in hibernation for several months. A common misconception is that frogs spend the winter the way aquatic turtles do, dug into the mud at the bottom of a pond or stream. In fact, hibernating frogs would suffocate if they dug into the mud for an extended period of time. A hibernating turtle’s metabolism slows down so drastically that it can get by on the mud’s meager oxygen supply. Hibernating aquatic frogs, however, must be near oxygen-rich water and spend a good portion of the winter just lying on top of the mud or only partially buried. They may even slowly swim around from time to time.

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Black Bears Still Active

12-15-14  bear track in snow 049A7902While some, perhaps most, black bears have entered hibernation in northern New England by now, there are still some active individuals, probably males, who are finding enough food to delay denning. Typically a scarcity of food and cold weather trigger the reduction in the metabolism of a black bear, which signals the onset of hibernation. If the weather remains relatively warm and/or there is a large supply of beechnuts and/or acorns, signs of bears can occasionally be found even this late in the year. While there have been a few years when black bears have been sighted throughout the winter, most wildlife biologists say that it is safe to put up bird feeders in December, as sunflower seed-loving bears have usually retreated to their den sites by now. The pictured tracks and scat discovered in the past few days in central Vermont challenges that assumption (as does the stolen bird feeder). (Thanks to Erin Donahue and Charlie Berger for photo op – sensitive fern fertile frond for size comparison)

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Raccoons Fattening Up

11-13-14  raccoon tracks IMG_0045In the Northeast, raccoons spend the fall fattening up, for little, if any, food is consumed during the winter. Acorns, hickory nuts, beechnuts and hazelnuts are favorite foods. For as long as insects are available, they form a large part of a raccoon’s diet – delicacies include larvae of dug-up yellow jacket and bumblebee nests, and honeybees as well as the honey the bees have stored for the winter. Birds and rabbits injured by hunters, mice, bats, wild grapes and an occasional crayfish provide raccoons with enough sustenance so that fat makes up almost 50% of their body weight as they head into winter.

While signs of their presence, such as tracks, are still visible, they soon will be scarce. On the coldest winter days, raccoons will seek shelter in hollow trees, sometimes holing up for as long as a month at a time. Communal denning sometimes occurs, with up to 23 raccoons having been found in the same den. Considered “deep sleepers,” raccoons do not lower their metabolism significantly, and therefore are not considered true hibernators.

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