An online resource based on the award-winning nature guide

June

Trailing Arbutus Fruiting

trailing arbutus fruit 115The fruit of Trailing Arbutus (Epigaea repens), also known as “Mayflower,” is maturing. While this plant’s flower is familiar, its fruit may not be. Although it develops from the flower, and therefore is in the same location (under cover of Trailing Arbutus’s leathery leaves next to the ground), it is not as showy or as noticeable. In addition, the aromatic pink and white flowers that blossom in early spring infrequently set fruit. Out of a stand of well over 100 flowering Trailing Arbutus plants, only two could be found that bore fleshy white fruit.

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Black Bears Marking Territory & Mating

6-30 black bear sign 032Black Bear (Ursus americanus) breeding season begins in May and lasts until early July, with mating occurring mainly during June. The female traverses her territory at three times her normal rate during this time, laying down a scent trail which the male follows. Both male and female periodically intentionally deposit their scent by straddling vegetation, breaking off small limbs and biting, scratching and rubbing on trees (and telephone poles if available). Tree species often used for marking include White Birch, Balsam Fir, Striped Maple and Red Pine. When contact between the bears is eventually made, they nuzzle and chew on each other’s head and neck and may even wrestle a little. Mating occurs repeatedly for several days. (Thanks to Alfred Balch for photo op.)

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Calopogon Flowering

6-26-15  calopogon 113A visit to a bog or marshy area at this time of year may well reward you with the sight of a striking orchid known as Calopogon or Grass-Pink (Calopogon tuberosus). Immediately noticeable are the fine, white “hairs” on the upper lip of the flower, which are thought to act as a “pseudopollen” lure, attracting native, recently-emerged bumblebees. The bees, expecting a reward of nectar and/or pollen, land on the hairs. At this point, the hinged labellum (part of flower that attracts insects and acts as a landing platform) swings down under the weight of the bee and positions the bee on the column (fused male and female structures located directly beneath the labellum), where pollen can be placed on its back. If the bee already carries a load of pollen, it will contact the stigma and thus pollinate the plant.

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Green Frog Tadpoles Maturing

green frog with tail 127When you think about the structure and form of a tadpole, a plant-eating, streamlined creature designed for aquatic life, and that of a meat-eating terrestrial frog which is adapted for jumping on land, and know that they are one and the same organism, one can’t help but be impressed. The visible changes in this transformation are dramatic enough – legs emerging, head shape changing, tail being absorbed – but the internal changes a tadpole undergoes are just as dramatic. Research has shown that everything from a tadpole’s respiratory (gills replaced by lungs), urogenital and sensory systems to its digestive system (intestines becomes much shorter due to change in diet) is undergoing significant changes.

The length of time these changes take varies according to the species of amphibian. Most Green Frogs (Rana clamitans, pictured) undergo metamorphosis within the same breeding season or they overwinter as tadpoles and mature the following summer. (There are records of Green Frog metamorphosis taking up to 22 months). Biologists in Michigan found that eggs deposited before roughly June 25 were capable of developing in one season, whereas eggs deposited after roughly July 10 remained as tadpoles until the following year.

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Twinflower (Linnaea borealis) Blooming

twinflower 243Carl Linnaeus, known as the “Father of Modern Taxonomy,” came up with the binomial (Genus, species) naming system for plants in the mid-1700’s. During his lifetime he named close to 8,000 plants (as well as animals, including Homo sapiens). Linnaeus used many of his supporters and detractors as inspiration for naming plants. The most beautiful of plants were often named in honor of his supporters and his detractors often supplied the names of common weeds or unattractive plants. Twinflower, Linnaea borealis, was reported to be Linnaeus’s favorite plant, and was named by his close friend and teacher Jan Frederik Gronovius in honor of Linnaeus.


Rose Chafers Busy Eating & Being Eaten

6-26-15  crab spider with rose chafer 020All of a sudden we are besieged by Rose Chafers, those tan beetles that feed on roses and peonies, as well as the foliage of many trees, shrubs and other plants. The reason for their sudden appearance has to do with their life cycle.

Adult Rose Chafers emerge from the ground in late May and early June. (Because the Rose Chafer prefers sandy soil to lay eggs, plants located on sandy sites are most likely to be attacked.) Adult beetles feed on plants for three or four weeks, generally until late June when they mate, lay eggs in the soil and then die shortly afterwards. Two to three weeks later, the eggs hatch into small, white grub‑like larvae which feed on the roots of grasses and weeds. The larvae spend the winter in the soil below the frost line before pupating and emerging as adults in the spring.

Rose Chafers contain a toxin that can be deadly to birds, but apparently not to crab spiders, at least the one that was photographed drinking the innards of a Rose Chafer it had caught. As testimony to their drive to reproduce, a Rose Chafer, minutes after this picture was taken, mounted and attempted to mate with the Rose Chafer that was being consumed by the crab spider.

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Barred Owl Chicks Fledging

6-18-15  barred owl fledged 155The fledging of flightless Barred Owl chicks takes place four or five weeks after they hatch. Typically they perch on the rim of the nest cavity before climbing to a nearby branch. If there are no branches close by, the chicks will drop to the ground and climb a nearby leaning tree, where they perch and are fed by their parents. Juvenile Barred Owls begin short flights at approximately 10 weeks of age, attaining longer flights by 12 weeks. They are now learning to hunt, but continue to be fed by their parents until late summer or early fall. (Thanks to Alfred Balch for photo op.)

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to http://www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com and click on the yellow “donate” button.


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