An online resource based on the award-winning nature guide

May

Northern Watersnakes Mating

5-26-16  mating water snakes by Sue Elliott DSCN7482Active both day and night, Northern Watersnakes can be found basking near or swimming in ponds, rivers, lakes and marshes in the Northeast.  Late May through June is the peak of their mating season, when they engage in courtship rituals prior to mating.  Initially the male approaches a female side by side and rubs his body against hers, sometimes simultaneously using his chin to rub her head, neck or body.  When they are ready to mate, the male coils his tail around the female’s body and tail in an attempt to align his cloaca (single opening for digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts) with hers.  Once that is accomplished he inserts one of his two hemipenes (penises) and releases sperm.  Four to six months later she gives birth to between 12 and 60 live snakes, each of which measures between six and twelve inches.  (Thanks and credit go to Sue Wetmore for this remarkable photograph.)

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Canadian Tiger Swallowtails Puddling

swallowtails puddling 515Once in a while, if you are traveling on dirt roads, you may come across a cluster of butterflies in the road, such as the pictured Canadian Tiger Swallowtails, that are so engaged in what they are doing that you can approach them fairly closely.  The butterflies, predominantly males, have gathered to obtain salts and minerals that have leached from the soil into standing puddles and moist dirt. The act of acquiring nutrients in this manner is referred to as “puddling.”

Because butterflies do not have chewing mouthparts as adults, they must drink their meals. While nectar is their main source of nutrition, males often supplement their diet with these minerals. The sodium uptake aids in reproductive success, with the precious nutrients often transferred from the male to the female during mating. This extra nutrition helps ensure that the eggs survive.

Canadian and Eastern Tiger Swallowtails are very similar, and their ranges overlap. To determine which you have seen, look at the underside of the butterfly’s forewing and see if the yellow band along the margin is solid (Canadian Tiger Swallowtail, Papilio canadensis), or if it is broken up into spots (Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, Papilio glaucus).

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Changing of the Guard: Hairy Woodpeckers Sharing Parental Duties

5-30-16 hairy woodpeckers  215

When their offspring are very young, Hairy Woodpeckers feed them by regurgitation.  As the nestlings mature, the parents bring food back to the nest.  Most species of birds (85%) engage in bi-parental care, where the male and female contribute equally to feeding and guarding their young.  Often the male does more of the food gathering and the female more of the brooding.

In some of these species the male and female both brood as well as gather food.  Hairy Woodpecker parents share these duties equally for the month that their young remain in their cavity nest.  They both brood their young, with males typically getting night duty, and both gather food for their nestlings.  Lawrence Kilham, a New Hampshire MD and ornithologist, found that male Hairy Woodpeckers foraged farther from the nest, made fewer feeding visits, and brought larger prey to nestlings, whereas females remained closer and fed young three to four times as frequently as males.  (Photo: female Hairy Woodpecker arriving with arachnid food, male about to depart. Thanks to Suzanne Weinberg for photo op.)

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Eastern Newts Dining On Hapless Dragonflies

eastern newt eating dragonfly 407Inevitably, as newly-emerged drying dragonflies and damselflies hang over the surface of the water on emergent vegetation, breezes blow and some of them lose their grip, falling into the water below.  At this stage, their bodies are soft and they are not capable of flight, which leaves them very vulnerable to aquatic predators such as Eastern Newts.  While amphibian eggs, aquatic insects, crustaceans, worms and small molluscs make up most of their diet, Eastern Newts are quick to make a meal of most invertebrates that end up in the water.

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Dragonflies Eclosing

5-26-16  dragonfly eclosing2  347 The sudden hot weather seems to have triggered a mass emergence of dragonflies and damselflies.  The emerging vegetation along the shores of ponds is covered with larval Odonates (members of the order of insects that includes dragonflies and damselflies) metamorphosing into adults.  The adults, still in the skin of their last larval stage, crawl out of the water, climb up vegetation, rocks, etc., and split the back of their larval skin.  The adult flips backwards out of this opening, hangs upside down and then grasps the vegetation and/or empty larval skin while as its abdomen is released.  The dragonfly hangs in the breeze while it pumps air into its body, sending liquid into its wings.

To appreciate this process called eclosion, compare the size of the wings in the photo insert (recently-emerged adult) with those in the larger photograph, which was taken twelve minutes after emergence.  Within a day or so the sheen on the newly-formed wings goes away, the dragonfly’s body hardens and colors start to appear.

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Large-flowered Trillium Flowering

5-25-16  large-flowered trillium 100

Large-flowered Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum), also known as White Wake-Robin, is our largest and showiest species of trillium.  It can be found throughout New England’s rich woods, sometimes carpeting large expanses of the forest floor in May and June.  All species of trillium, as their name implies, have parts arranged in threes, or in multiples of three (petals, bracts, leaves, stamens, carpels).

Nectar, not fragrance, attracts long-tongued bumblebees to Large-flowered Trillium’s funnel-shaped blossoms.  Self-pollination occasionally occurs, aided by the fact that as the flowers age, their stigmas reflex downward and come in contact with the anthers.  The flowers are exceptionally long-lived, remaining open and fertile for two to three weeks.

When they first open, Large-flowered Trillium’s petals are white.  As the flowers age, they become pale to deep pink (see insert).  (There is also a pink form of Large-flowered Trillium which is pink from the time of opening.) The seeds that form are dispersed primarily by ants, but yellow jackets, harvestmen and white-tailed deer also contribute to their dispersal.  It takes two years for the seeds to germinate and once established, Large-flowered Trillium plants typically require seven to ten years in optimal conditions to reach flowering size.

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American Woodcock Eggs Hatching

woodcock 019Among ground-nesting birds in the Northeast,  the American Woodcock, also known as the Timberdoodle,  is one of the earliest to lay eggs – usually around mid- to late April.  The female shapes a shallow depression in the leaf litter and then incubates her eggs for about three weeks.  During this time, if she is sufficiently disturbed, the female will flush and feign injury.  She usually lands nearby, runs about with her tail spread, wings drooping and her body quivering, uttering a cat-like sound to distract potential predators.

Upon hatching, the precocial chicks are brooded until their down dries and then leave the nest, usually within hours of hatching.  For the first week or so they are dependent upon their mother feeding them, but soon are finding their own food.  In a little over a month, the chicks become completely independent. (Thanks to Susan Morse and Phillip Mulligan for photo op.)

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