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Flowering Skunk Cabbage Serves as Warming Hut for Pollinating Insects

4-24-15  skunk cabbage 013As Skunk Cabbage grows, it absorbs oxygen, and this allows it to produce heat through a process known as thermogenesis. This heat is responsible for the fact that Skunk Cabbage is one of the earliest plants to flower in the spring.

Skunk Cabbage’s flower has two components – the flower-bearing, round spadix and the hood-like spathe that surrounds it. The spadix is able to maintain its temperature at about 68°F., creating a little warming hut inside the spathe for the few insects out this early in the spring. Fueled by the reserved starch in the plant’s underground rhizome, the spadix is able to exceed the temperature outside the spathe by as much as 77°F. for a period of two to three weeks. The combination of the heat produced and the dark, heat-absorbing spathe can cause the snow around the plant to melt. If the ambient temperature drops below 37.4°F., the plant can shut down the heating mechanism until the air temperature rises again. (Thanks to Sadie Brown for photo op.)

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Beavers See Daylight

4-17-15 beaver 281Imagine sharing dark, damp, cramped living quarters under pond ice with at least three other individuals for four to five months. Then imagine an increasing amount of light filtering through ice that is getting thinner and thinner. Finally the day comes when you are able to break through the ice and crawl out of the water onto land. The sudden brightness and heat provided by the sun, the availability of fresh vegetation to eat and the opportunity to thoroughly groom oneself in the open air must make an unimaginable sensory impact on a beaver in early spring.

Naturally Curious blog will have a brief hiatus until next Thursday, 4/23, so that a Naturally Curious Day by Day (my next adult book) chapter deadline can be met.

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Waxwings Supplementing Sugary Fruit Diet With High-Protein Insects

4-3-15 bohemian waxwing IMG_2383The diet of both Cedar and Bohemian Waxwings is primarily sugary fruits throughout most of year. Research shows that they can subsist on this diet exclusively for as many as 18 days. However, in winter when feeding on fruits, they also feed on buds and available insects. In warmer months, waxwings will fly out over water from exposed perches, much like flycatchers, and snatch emerging aquatic insects such as mosquitoes, midges, mayflies, caddisflies and dragonflies out of the air. They also glean for vegetation-borne insect prey, such as scale insects. At this time of year they are taking advantage of winter stonefly hatches over open streams. (photos: bohemian waxwing & stonefly)

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Great Horned Owls Incubating Eggs

4-1-15 GHO2  240Great Horned Owls are said to have the widest range of nest sites of any bird in North or South America. Like other owls and falcons, this raptor does not build its own nest, but rather relies heavily on abandoned stick nests of diurnal birds of prey. Red-tailed Hawk nests are often usurped, as well as those of Bald Eagles, crows, ravens and herons. Nests may be lined with shreds of bark, leaves, downy feathers from the owl’s breast, fur of prey and trampled pellets. In addition to bird nests, Great Horned Owls also raise their one to four nestlings (usually two) in tree cavities and snags, on cliffs, in deserted buildings, in squirrel nests and even on the ground.

The female Great Horned Owl does all the incubating; the male delivers prey to her at intervals throughout the night. These early nesters have incubated eggs successfully when outside temperatures have been as low as -27°F. Hopefully warmer temperatures will welcome the newly hatched owlets in about a month. (photo: mostly hidden Great Horned Owl in Great Blue Heron nest)

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Accommodating Both Birds & Bears

3-20 - birds and bears comment IMG_8628In response to my “bears & bird feeders” blog yesterday, a highly respected New England naturalist responded with the following comment, suggesting several ways to have your cake and eat it too. I so endorse his ideas, and especially the reasons behind them, that I am sharing them with my blog readers today.

April to mid- May is perhaps the most food-limited time for birds too. Furthermore, it is my belief that the biggest share of future curious naturalists (and conservationists) are those that grow up in households that feed birds. We NEED those bird feeders out there too! We naturalist types should be thinking about how to bear up and still keep the feeders going. Most of the time, I find that bringing the feeders inside for the night in late afternoon “works”. (I say, like bringing in the cat or the chickens.) We have a “bear resistant” rig here at the Harris Center-a feeding station that is raised and lowered like a flag on a two story flag pole. I know others have found electronic ways of keeping bears away (like motion activated lights), and my friends and neighbors Don and Lilian Stokes are very successful by electrifying their feeding station-just like an apiary. They wish many more people would do so.
Meade Cadot, Naturalist Emeritus, Harris Center for Conservation Education


Rodents Recycling

3-13-15  gray squirrel 001Bones, antlers, skulls, turtle shells – all are recycled relatively quickly by rodents seeking a source of minerals, particularly calcium and phosphorus. All rodents possess four incisors, two in the front of the upper jaw and two opposite these, on the bottom jaw. These incisors, unlike other teeth, never stop growing. By gnawing on hard objects such as bones, rodents keep their incisors paired down. If an incisor is broken or lost, the opposing incisor will continue growing in a circle, having nothing to grind against, causing the rodent to die of starvation or from having its brain pierced (through the roof of the rodent’s mouth) by the ever-growing incisor. In this photograph, a gray squirrel is obtaining minerals and sharpening its incisors on a moose skull that a human wedged into the crotch of a tree.

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Patient (and Hungry) Barred Owls Visit Feeders

3-12-15 barred owl 152Barred owls are nothing if not resourceful when it comes to methods for finding food. Typically they sit on a high branch and scan the area for prey before dropping down to capture small mammals such as mice, squirrels as well as reptiles and amphibians. During summer months, they have been seen perched over water and swooping down to capture fish, as well as wading in shallow water to hunt for crayfish and fish. Barred owls have even been seen running along the ground and pouncing on amphibians.

Even with a myriad of hunting techniques, however, barred owls have had a hard time this winter, due to the depth of the snow (harder to hear and reach prey) and the time it is taking for it to melt. Small mammals, which compose the bulk of their diet, remain well hidden. Reports of barred owls perched patiently waiting and watching on or near bird feeders for unsuspecting rodents to expose themselves have become commonplace. Mice and voles that come out from under the snow to feed on spilled seed during the night are a life-saving source of food for these stressed birds. Warmer weather will hopefully soon improve hunting conditions for barred owls. Their gain will be our loss, for once again, as it should be, a sighting will become a far more rare occurrence. (Thanks to Emily and Joe Silver for photo op.)

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to http://www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com and click on the yellow “donate” button.


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