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Reminder: 2020 Naturally Curious Calendars Orders Being Taken Until November 10th

 

Orders for the 2020 Naturally Curious Calendar can be placed by writing to me at 134 Densmore Hill Road, Windsor, VT 05089. The calendars are printed on heavy card stock and measure 11” x 17” when hanging. There is one full-page photograph per month. The calendars are $35.00 each (includes postage). Please specify the number of calendars you would like to order, the mailing address to which they should be sent and your email address (so I can easily and quickly confirm your order and contact you if I have any questions). Your check can be made out to Mary Holland.  (For your bank-balancing sanity, checks will be cashed when received, not when calendars are shipped out.)

Guaranteed orders can be placed up until November 10th. Orders placed after this date will be filled as long as my supply of extra calendars lasts. (I have had so many last-minute requests in past years that I have not been able to fill all of the orders placed after November 10th, so if you want to be sure of having your order filled, I encourage you to place your order before that date.)  Calendars will arrive at your door (or wherever you’re having them sent) by mid-December. Thank you so much!

Monthly photographs: January – Screech Owl; February – Bohemian Waxwing; March – Eastern Chipmunk; April – American Bittern; May – Coyote pup; June – Pileated Woodpeckers; July – Painted Turtle; August – Cardinal Flower; September – Fawn/Laurel Sphinx Moth Caterpillar; October –  N.A. River Otter; November –  Downy Rattlesnake Plantain; December – Beavers.


Chlorophyll Breaking Down

It’s as if a magic brush painted the northern New England landscape with every conceivable shade of vibrant red, orange and yellow this past week.  The major player in this phenomenon is chlorophyll, the pigment that gives leaves their green coloration during spring and summer. Chlorophyll is able to absorb from sunlight the energy that is used in transforming carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates, such as sugars and starch, inside cell-like structures called chloroplasts, a process referred to as photosynthesis. But in the fall, because of changes in the length of daylight and changes in temperature, the leaves stop their food-making process. Chlorophyll breaks down and the green color of leaves disappears, revealing colors that have been masked by the chlorophyll all summer (as well as reds manufactured in the fall).  Imagine a world without chlorophyll, where the bright golds, purples, yellows, oranges and reds of autumn leaves would be the natural colors seen in spring, summer and fall.

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to http://www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com and click on the yellow “donate” button.

 


Bumblebees Mating

The adult male bumblebee has only one function in life and that is to mate.  However, research shows that only one out of seven males are successful in this endeavor.  When mating does take place, it is more complex than one might imagine.

In most species, the male bumblebees fly in a circuit depositing a queen-attracting scent (pheromone) from a gland in their head onto vegetation and prominent structures such as trees and rocks.  This usually takes place in the morning, and if it rains, the scent is replaced.  The males then patrol the area, with each species of bee flying at a specific height. Once a (virgin) queen has been attracted, mating takes place on the ground or vegetation, and lasts anywhere from 10 to 80 minutes.  After the male’s sperm has been deposited he inserts a genital plug in the queen which, when hardened, prevents the sperm of other males from entering her for up to three days.  (Photo by Heather Thompson: queen bumblebee with several smaller male suitors)

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to http://www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com  and click on the yellow “donate” button.


Cut-leaved Grape Fern Spores Maturing

There are several species of Grape Ferns in the Northeast, all of which are true ferns, but they are not closely related to the plants we generally think of as ferns. Like other ferns, Grape Ferns do not have flowers; they reproduce with spores, not seeds. A single stalk divides into two blades – one of which is sterile and does the photosynthesizing, and one of which is fertile and bears spores. It is the resemblance of this plant’s clusters of spore-bearing sporangia to miniature clusters of grapes that gives this group of ferns its name.

Cut-leaved Grape Fern, Sceptridium dissectum, is one of the most common species of Grape Ferns in the Northeast. It is often found on disturbed land, is roughly 6” to 8” tall, and has an evergreen sterile frond that appears in July, turns bronze in the fall and dies back in May.  The fertile frond has branched clusters of yellow sporangia containing spores which mature at this time of year.

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to http://www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com  and click on the yellow “donate” button.


Polyphemus Moth Cocoon

Congratulations to Stein, the first person to correctly identify Monday’s Mystery Photo as the cocoon of a Polyphemus Moth!

The Polyphemus Moth is one of our giant silk moths, spinners of the largest cocoons in North America.  Leaves are often woven into the surface of the cocoon in which the Polyphemus pupa spends the winter.  Unlike most other giant silk moths’ cocoons, the Polyphemus Moth cocoon lacks an escape “valve” at one end. In order to emerge (as an adult) from the cocoon the summer after it spins it, the moth secretes an enzyme that digests and softens the silk at one end. Then it moves about the cocoon in a circular pattern, tearing the softened silk with two spurs located at the base of each wing on its abdomen. Eventually it escapes by splitting the silk and pushing the top up.

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to http://www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com  and click on the yellow “donate” button.

 


American Dagger Moth Caterpillars Roaming

American Dagger Moth (Acronicta americana) caterpillars are present from June to October in the Northeast, but because of their size (up to 2 ½”) and their searching for a suitable site to pupate in over the winter, they are very evident right now.

American Dagger Moth caterpillars have lemon yellow (early instars) or white (late instars) setae, or hairs.  Their distinctive characteristic is the pattern of black tufts: two pairs of diverging tufts along the middle of the caterpillar and one thick black tuft at the end. As larvae they have a wide variety of host trees, including alders, ashes, birches, elms, hickories, maples, oaks, poplars, walnuts, and willows.

After locating a wintering site, these caterpillars will spin a cocoon in which they will spend the next several months as pupae.  Late next spring American Dagger Moths will emerge from their cocoons as two-inch-long brown moths.

If touched, these caterpillars can cause a mild allergic reaction (a rash) in some people who touch the them.

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to http://www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com  and click on the yellow “donate” button.


Northern Flickers Migrating

The Northern Flicker is one of the few North American woodpeckers that is strongly migratory. However,  most of the eastern migrants are Canadian breeders.  They fly south from Canada with big flights moving down the Atlantic coast in the fall to the southeastern U.S.. Peak fall migration occurs from late September to early October, with some migration continuing to early November. As a result, New England sees an increase in the number of flickers sighted at this time of year.  More southern populations are sedentary, and do not migrate. Northern Flickers that nest in New England do both.  Some remain here for the winter, while some fly further south and return next spring to their northern breeding grounds.

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to http://www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com  and click on the yellow “donate” button.