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Mystery Photo

7-4-18 mystery photo_U1A9838Identify these mystery objects with ¼-inch “rabbit ears” by going to the Naturally Curious blog site (www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com) and clicking on “Comments” at the bottom of this post. Answer will be posted on Friday, July 6th.

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Indian Cucumber Root Flowering & Fruiting

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Indian Cucumber Root, Medeola virginiana, lives up to its name, as its rhizomes have a mild cucumber taste. Equally as enticing are its flowers — delicate and oh so intricate.

This member of the Lily family has one whorl of leaves if it isn’t going to flower (too young or without enough energy to reproduce), and two if it is. If there are two whorls of leaves, look under the top whorl and you will find flowers unlike any other you have seen. The pale petals fold back and from the center emerge three long reddish styles and several purple stamens (reproductive parts). Occasionally the flowers are above the topmost leaves, but typically they are below.

The change in position that Indian Cucumber Root flowers undergo as they develop into fruit is as fascinating as their appearance. The pedicels, or stalks, of these flowers become more erect once the flowers have been pollinated and fertilized, to the point where the dark blue berries mature above the upper whorl of leaves. You can see both stages in this photograph (styles have yet to fall off the developing fruits).

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Insect Populations Decline In Number And Diversity

6-27-18 common milkweed IMG_7097Thirteen years ago I went and sat in a field full of Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). The photographs I took of insects visiting the fragrant blossoms ended up being the subject of my first children’s book, Milkweed Visitors. The number and diversity of invertebrates in that patch of milkweed was astounding. Over a decade later I find milkweed flowers alarmingly free of insect visitors. I first noticed this several years ago, and unfortunately the trend has continued. An occasional honey bee or bumblebee, perhaps a swallowtail butterfly or a red milkweed beetle or two can be seen, but nowhere near the number or variety of insects that you found just a few years ago.

Recent studies show that insect populations are declining dramatically not only in milkweed patches, and not only in North America, but in many parts of the world. A global index for invertebrate abundance showed a 45 percent decline over the last four decades. (Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies). Researchers say various factors, from the rampant use of pesticides (in particular, neonicotinoids), the spread of monoculture crops such as corn and soybeans, urbanization, and habitat destruction contribute to this decline.

This phenomenon affects everything from pollination to the documented decline in bird populations that feed on flying insects. However, thus far, only the decline of honey bee populations has received widespread public attention, in large measure because of their vital role in pollinating food crops. The rest of the insect world has been widely ignored. Insects play a major role not only in pollination but as predators of insect pests and as food for birds, amphibians and bats. Who knows how many plant species live in symbiotic relationships with highly specialized insects.

Given the importance of insects for agriculture, biodiversity and the health of ecosystems, one hopes that studies regarding the decline of insects will increase in the near future.  We can all contribute to a greater understanding of what is happening by participating in “citizen science” projects which undertake monitoring of specific insect species. A list of such projects and how to get involved can be found at https://xerces.org/citizen-science/.

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Loon Cartoon

Submitted by chiropractor extraordinaire, Susan Kellogg.

loon cartoon from Susan Kellogg IMG_0969 (002)

Common Loon Chicks Hatching

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Newly-hatched Common Loon chicks can swim as soon as they hit the water, which they do as soon as their down dries after hatching, usually within 24 hours. Their buoyancy and lack of maneuverability, however, leave them vulnerable to predators. Parents usually don’t stray far from their young chicks due to the omnipresent threat of eagles, hawks, gulls, large fish and snapping turtles.  During their first two weeks, young loon chicks often seek shelter (and rest) on the backs of their parents.

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to https://naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com and click on the yellow “donate” button.

Male Green Frogs Defending Territories

6-25-18 green frogs2 _U1A9296Male Green Frogs are extremely territorial. During June, July and August they establish a series of territories, often claiming each one for less than one week before moving on.

The desirability of a given territory is of utmost importance – the better the quality (amount of vegetation) of your territory the more likely it is that a female will choose you to fertilize her eggs. The more time a male spends in a high quality territory the greater the number of mates he will acquire.

Considerable aggression is displayed against other males when an individual is claiming and maintaining a territory. When a competing male arrives, a wrestling match often ensues (see photo).

Naturally Curious is supported by donations. If you choose to contribute, you may go to https://naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com and click on the yellow “donate” button.

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