Most beavers are born between May and early July, weighing one pound and measuring a foot long. They are fully furred, their eyes and ears are open and they know how to swim. Even so, they don’t usually venture out of the lodge for the first month or so. Initially their fur isn’t water-repellent, but by three to four weeks of age, the young beavers’ anal glands, used in greasing their fur, are functional. When the kits weigh seven or eight pounds, they start to leave the lodge regularly to explore their pond and feed with their parents and older siblings.
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Beavers spend a great deal of time tending to their coats, grooming several hours a day throughout the year. Grooming consists of removing sticks and debris that have become embedded in their fur, as well as applying oil from their anal glands to waterproof their fur. Waterproofing is essential, as it prevents the cold water from penetrating their fur. Typically they sit with their tail between their hind legs, stretched out in front of them, with their anal glands exposed. Beavers procure the oil with their front feet, and use all four feet to comb it through their fur. The two inside nails on both of their hind feet are split, increasing the efficiency with which they can apply the oil. Sometimes two beavers will groom each other, engaging in “mutual grooming.” The male and his offspring begin to groom each other when the kits are only two weeks old, yearlings and kits from three weeks on, and the mother and kits when the young are four weeks old. Mutual grooming continues as long as they are a family unit. ( I am humbled by the response to yesterday’s post. You will each be hearing from me soon. )