An online resource based on the award-winning nature guide – maryholland505@gmail.com

Posts tagged “Larvae

Hickory Tussock Moth

 

Most tussock moths, such as this Hickory Tussock Moth (Lophocampa caryae), are densely covered with hair-like structures called setae that bear microscopic barbs.  Many people are sensitive to these setae and get an itchy rash if they handle a Hickory Tussock Moth.   Even touching the cocoon of a tussock moth can cause irritation, as the setae are woven into it.  Many tussock moths display warning coloration with their black, white, red, orange or yellow setae.  What looks like two Hickory Tussock Moth larvae in the photograph is actually one adult caterpillar (left) and its shed skin (right).   You can find these larvae feeding on hickory, walnut, ash, oak and many other trees in the woods right now.  After spending the winter pupating in a cocoon in the leaf litter, a small spotted, tan moth emerges.


Inside View of Leafcutter Bee Cell – Larva and Pollen Supply


Mystery Photo

This is the larval stage of a very common insect. Do you know what it turns into? (I.D. provided 6-13-12)


Cecropia Moth

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Who would ever associate a lime green caterpillar with colored knobs with a large, brown moth? Thanks to someone’s keen observation, we know that these are both stages of one and the same insect — a Cecropia Moth. It is North America’s largest native moth — individuals with a wing span of over six inches have been documented. Cecropia Moths are emerging from their 3-inch cocoons this month, as are other giant silk moths, including the Luna Moth and Prometheus Moth.
NOTICE: I will be away for the next week in northern Maine, trying to photograph the largest member of the deer family. Blogs will resume on Monday, June 11.


Spotted Salamander Larvae

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A few short weeks ago spotted salamanders gathered at vernal pools to breed and lay eggs.  Since then their eggs have started hatching, and gilled spotted salamander larvae can now be found in these pools. The larvae are major predators and consume many insects and crustaceans, including mosquito larvae and fairy shrimp.  During the next two or three months, these larvae will develop lungs, absorb their feathery gills and begin life as terrestrial amphibians, assuming the temporary pool they’re in doesn’t dry up prematurely. (The two appendages, one on either side of its body in front of the gills, help the larva balance itself until its legs develop.)

 


Noctuid Moth Larva

The striped caterpillar that is crawling along the surface of fresh snow is the larval stage of a noctuid or owlet moth (species unknown).  Noctuids are dull-colored, medium-sized, nocturnal moths that are attracted to lights in the summer. They usually possess a well-developed proboscis (mouthpart) for sucking nectar.  You may be familiar with the common garden pests, cutworms, which are also noctuid larvae.  How this larva survives freezing temperatures I do not know, but I have seen several dozen at a time crawling around on top of the snow.  Note:   Jean Harrison, a fellow nature lover, just identified this larva as  Noctua pronuba, a winter cutworm also known as the greater yellow underwing (moth), a recent immigrant from Europe.


Blackberry Knot Gall

12-28-10      Blackberry Knot Gall

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Winter is a good time to look for galls (abnormal plant growths caused by different agents, including insects, fungi, mites and bacteria) such as the blackberry knot gall, which is much more noticeable when there are no leaves to hide it. Whereas many galls are inhabited by a solitary insect, the blackberry knot gall contains many individual chambers, each containing the larva of the tiny wasp Diastrophus nebulosus. During the spring and summer months, this little wasp deposits eggs into the ridged stems of blackberry which stimulates the plant’s tissue into abnormal growth along the stem. This particular colonial gall can be six inches in length, although two or three inches is more typical (the more eggs that are laid, the larger the gall).  The eggs hatch and the larvae overwinter inside the gall. Adult wasps emerge in the spring and chew their way out of the gall, leaving tiny holes along the gall’s lumpy ridges. In the first photograph you can see where a hungry predator has worked its way into two of the larval chambers.  In the second, multiple chambers and larvae are exposed (sacrificed for the sake of knowledge, but popular food for chickadees on a very cold morning).

 


Staghorn Sumac Seed Heads and Their Inhabitants

If you pull apart a red, fuzzy seed head of Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) this time of year, you will find, in addition  to a multitude of seeds, a profusion of scat in the shape of miniscule round, grey balls.  If you’re lucky, you’ll find the larval insect that produced this scat.  Chances are, according to Charley Eisman, author of Tracks and Sign of Insects, that many of the resident insects are in the Gelechioidea family of moths.  The larvae of these moths are consumers of Staghorn Sumac seeds, and judging from the amount of scat usually present, they spend a considerable amount of time inhabiting the seed heads.  It’s likely that Black-capped Chickadees and other birds you see gleaning sumac fruit are actually there  for the larvae as much as the seeds.

 

 


Woolly Bears

Legend has it that the more black at either end of a woolly bear, the harder the winter that lies ahead.  Truth be known, the woolly bear caterpillar (larval stage of the Isabella Tiger Moth) molts its skin up to six times, and each time a brown section is added; thus, the longer the summer, the greater the ratio of brown to black on a woolly bear.   A mostly-brown caterpillar is more an indication of an early spring or late fall, rather than a forecast of the coming winter’s severity!


Ribbed Petiole Poplar Gall

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If you look at enough Trembling  Aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaves (and to some degree, those of other poplar species), you are bound to come across some that have an oval swelling about the size of a pea where the leaf  and stem, or petiole, meet.  This swelling is a gall – an abnormal plant growth caused by chemicals coming from the moth (Ectoedemia populella) that laid an egg at this spot this past summer, or from the chewing of the hatched larva as it bored its way into the stem of the leaf.  This gall provides shelter and food for the developing larva, which will, after the leaf falls, go down into the ground to pupate.  An adult moth will emerge next  spring.   

 


Blinded Sphinx

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Sphinx moths (also known as hawk moths, and the larvae as hornworms) are a group of long-tongued moths that possess the most acute color vision of any animal. The larvae possess a “horn”, eyespot or hard button on their abdomen. (The tobacco hornworm and tomato hornworm are sphinx moth larvae.) The larva of the Blinded Sphinx moth (Paonias excaecatus) is the most common sphinx moth larva in many of New England’s woods.  Its bright green color and granulated skin may camouflage it amongst the leaves of the oak, hop hornbeam, cherry and poplar trees that it eats, but when crawling on the forest floor, as this one was, it’s hard to miss.  The larva burrows into the soil in the fall and pupates. An adult moth emerges the following summer and mates, but does not feed. This moth ‘s name refers to the fact that the small blue spot (or “iris”) on the hindwing has no central black spot (or “pupil”)  and is therefore “blind.”  The spots of the similar Twin-spotted Sphinx (Smerinthus jamaicensis)  has a black “pupil” which allows it to see.  p.s. Old habits die hard — I will continue to post whenever time allows!


White-marked Tussock Moth

The white-marked tussock moth caterpillar is brightly colored, with tufts of hair-like “setae.”  As you might guess, it’s in the same family (Arctiidae) as the woolly bear/Isabella tiger moth.  Although these caterpillars are appealing to the eye (of some people), it’s best not touch them, as their hairs break off very easily and can cause a painful reaction on your skin.  There are a number of species of tussock moths, many of which, in their larval stage, have these bristles and tufts.  As adult moths, most are brown or grey, and live long enough to mate, but they do not eat.