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Posts tagged “Orthoptera

Grasshopper Eggs Incubating

Grasshopper egg pods.

Most grasshoppers mate in the fall, lay eggs and die. Their eggs are deposited in the soil, in a cluster held together by a frothy secretion that, when dry, forms a rigid covering. The eggs and secretion are known as an egg pod.

The egg pods of grasshoppers vary not only in the number of eggs they contain but also in their size, shape, and structure. A pod can contain from 4 to more than 100 eggs, depending on the species of grasshopper. Grasshopper eggs vary in size, color, and shell sculpturing. Depending on the species eggs range from 1/10th to ½ an inch long and may be white, yellow, olive, tan, brownish red, or dark brown.

Most grasshoppers have laid their eggs by now, and the lingering warmth of the soil is already incubating them. They will soon enter diapause (the suspended development of an insect/insect embryo that occurs during winter in New England) and will resume their development come spring.  (Photo: Grasshopper egg pod & eggs, Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences)

 


Grasshoppers Molting

8-31-16 grasshopper molting 049A3466

Molting is the process by which insects and other arthropods grow. They have an external skeleton (exoskeleton) that supports and protects their body, unlike the internal skeleton of most other animals. Since the exoskeleton is hard and its outer layer is non-living, it cannot grow bigger by small increments as the human skeleton does. As an insect increases in size, it sheds the inelastic exoskeleton on the outside of its body, and replaces it with a larger, soft exoskeleton that has formed underneath the smaller, shed exoskeleton. Eventually this new exoskeleton hardens. This process is repeated several times during the life span of an insect (the exact number depends on the species).

Grasshoppers experience incomplete metamorphosis: they go through three stages in their life cycle – egg, nymph and adult. Nymphs are miniature versions of adult grasshoppers, except that they are usually light in color and do not possess functioning wings. Nymphs undergo five or six molts and with each molt their size increases and their wing pads progressively develop. Usually within a month nymphs molt for a final time, emerging as adults with fully developed wings. (Photo: shed grasshopper nymphal skin showing small, developing wing pads; inset – fully mature grasshopper)


Camel Crickets

Camel crickets are named for their humpback appearance. We don’t often see these wingless insects, for they prefer dark, damp habitats such as under stones and logs, where we don’t often look. However, when there are extreme weather conditions, such as excessive rainfall or the extended periods of hot, dry weather which we have experienced this summer, camel crickets are attracted to damp cellars and crawl spaces, giving us an opportunity to admire their impressive legs. Often mistaken for spiders, camel crickets do have long legs, but only six, not eight, of them. Their two hind legs are obviously longer and stronger than the other four, and enable this cricket to jump three feet high, a skill they use for defense against predators. A local blog reader reports that three nights in a row (camel crickets are nocturnal), due to the force of its jump, a camel cricket tripped a small have-a-heart trap set in their cellar for mice. (Thanks to the Choukas for photo op.)