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Posts tagged “Picoides pubescens

Downy Woodpeckers Nest-building

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Downy Woodpeckers are beginning to scout for potential nest sites, preferring the dead stubs of a living or dead tree. Both sexes have been observed selecting the nest site, although females do so more commonly. Just because you see a Downy Woodpecker pecking at a site, however, doesn’t mean it will end up nesting there, as excavation is often started at several sites before one is chosen.

When a potential nest site is decided upon by either sex, it often drums to inform its mate, and its mate often flies to the site and taps or drums in response. It takes about 16 days for both male and female to excavate a cavity. A round entrance hole of roughly 1 ¼” in diameter can make it hard for an egg-bearing female to squeeze into the nest. Egg-laying begins anywhere from one to ten days after the completion of the nest cavity, and three to eight eggs are laid, one per day, usually before 10 a.m.. (Photo: male Downy Woodpecker excavating nesting hole)

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Woodpeckers Drumming

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As tempting as it is to refer to the drumming of a Hairy Woodpecker or a Downy Woodpecker as a sign of spring, the truth is that both males and females drum at any time of year.  However, there’s definitely an uptick at this time of year. Drumming rates are usually highest prior to nesting, lower during nesting, and increase again after young leave the nest.

Much of the drumming in late winter has to do with courtship. Woodpeckers drum to define territories, locate a mate, summon a mate and to solicit copulation, among other things. Males are already busy establishing and defending territories, so keep an ear tuned for the sound of a bill pounding repeatedly against a tree or other hard surface.

For those wishing to distinguish between Hairy and Downy Woodpecker drums, according to David Sibley the drum of a Hairy Woodpecker is extremely fast and buzzing, with at least 25 taps per second, but has long pauses of 20 seconds or more between drums. Downy Woodpeckers drum at a slower rate, only about 15 taps per second, and drum frequently, often with pauses of only a few seconds between each drum. (To hear their respective drums, go to http://www.sibleyguides.com/2011/03/identifying-downy-and-hairy-woodpeckers-by-drumming-sounds/ )  (Photo: male Hairy Woodpecker)

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Hairy and Downy Woodpecker Bills

12-31-13 woodpecker billsDistinguishing Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) from their smaller relatives, Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens), can be challenging if you don’t have a chance to view both species at the same time. The easiest way to tell them apart is to note the relative size of their bills. The Hairy Woodpecker’s bill is proportionately much larger than the Downy Woodpecker’s – it’s almost as long as its head — whereas the Downy Woodpecker’s bill is not nearly as impressive. Although a Downy Woodpecker can’t drill or probe as deeply into trees as a Hairy Woodpecker, it does have at least one advantage due to its overall smaller size; it is light enough to balance on the stems of goldenrods, which usually aren’t strong enough to support Hairy Woodpeckers. It is here that Downy Woodpeckers drill for overwintering goldenrod fly larvae inside goldenrod ball galls – a popular winter snack for this species.

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Downy Woodpeckers Drumming

1-24-13 downy woodpecker3 IMG_7588Non-vocal communication between birds of the same species has become apparent in the last week or so — downy woodpeckers have started to hammer out bursts of steady staccato drum beats on nearby trees. Both male and female woodpeckers drum year round, but they do so most intensively from January to May, especially during the courtship and early nesting season which begin in March. Woodpeckers drum for a variety of reasons: defending territory, attracting a mate, maintaining contact with a mate, signaling readiness for copulation and summoning a mate from a distance. Woodpecker pairs do engage in duet drumming , which is thought to play a role in nest site selection and in promoting and maintaining the bond between mates.


Larvae-seeking Downy Woodpeckers

12-3-11  Larvae-seeking Downy Woodpeckers

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When cooler days arrive and adult insects become relatively scarce, insect-eating birds are very clever at gleaning the twigs, trunks and buds of trees and shrubs for overwintering eggs, larvae and pupae.  Certain galls (abnormal plant growths that house and provide food for a variety of insects) are sought by specific birds.  Downy woodpeckers seek the larvae of the Goldenrod Gall Fly (Eurosta solidaginis), which overwinter inside Goldenrod Ball Galls (formed on Canada Goldenrod, Solidago canadensis) before emerging as adults in the spring.  A tiny1/4” to 3/8”-wide hole (and an empty gall) is evidence that a downy woodpecker had itself a meal!