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Posts tagged “Solitary Wasps

Cerceris fumipennis: a biosurveillance tool for the emerald ash borer

8-19-13 Cerceris wasp with beetle prey2 099While we’re more familiar with social wasps, such as paper wasps, yellow jackets and hornets, there are also parasitic and solitary wasps. Solitary wasps live alone (as their name implies), all the females (not just the queen) are fertile and they are predatory. Among them is a wasp, Cerceris fumipennis, which preys exclusively on the family of beetles (Buprestidae) to which the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), the invasive beetle that’s threatening the ash tree population, belongs. After catching and paralyzing its prey, the wasp carries it back to her larvae in the nest she’s dug underground. A biosurveillance program exists which involves monitoring the prey that this species of wasp collects and brings back to the nest, in order to detect the presence of the Emerald Ash Borer in any given area. (This is how the EAB was first detected in Connecticut.) Pictured is a Cerceris fumipennis wasp with a Buprestid beetle (not an EAB) prey. (To become involved in Vermont’s citizen science biosurveillance program next summer, contact entomologist Trish Hanson of the Vermont Dept. of Forests, Parks and Recreation at Hanson.Trish@state.vt.us .)

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Inside Look at Organ Pipe Mud Dauber Wasp Cells

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Each “pipe” of the Organ Pipe Mud Dauber nest consists of several sealed cells (four, in this photograph), each stuffed with spiders (typically orb-spinning spider species) and one wasp egg. When the egg hatches, the white wasp larva consumes the paralyzed spiders, which are still fresh because they are still alive. Eventually, upon finishing the spiders, the larva will form a pupa case, and spend the winter inside it. In the spring the adult wasp will emerge from the case and chew its way out of the mud cell. If you look closely at the open, back side of these three “pipes” you can see that the oldest pipe is on the left, and contains cells with wasp larvae, whereas you can see mud dauber eggs lying on top of the spiders in two of the cells on the far right, in the most recently built pipe.


Organ Pipe Mud Dauber Wasps

There are basically two groups of wasps: 1) social wasps, such as hornets, yellowjackets and paper wasps and 2) solitary wasps, species that live solitary lives and typically hunt prey for their larvae (the adults consume nectar). Mud daubers are a type of solitary wasp.   Organ Pipe Mud Daubers builds cell out of mud in which they put prey (usually spiders) that they have stung and paralyzed, but not killed. They then lay an egg on top of the spiders, and seal the cell. After the egg hatches, the larval wasp consumes the still-fresh spiders, pupates, emerges as an adult wasp and chews its way out of the cell. In this picture a female Organ Pipe Mud Dauber wasp has collected a ball of mud and is applying it to the most recent cell she is making. The name “organ pipe” comes from the shape of the “pipes”, which consist of several cells, placed end-to-end, with the most recent cell at the bottom. (Notice the new, wet mud is darker in color.)