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Archive for September, 2012

Bear’s Head Tooth Fungus

 There is a group of fungi known as tooth fungi, due to the fact that they produce spores on tooth-like projections, not pores or gills.  Bear’s Head Tooth Fungus, Hericium americanum, also known as Lion’s Mane, Monkey Head or Icicle Mushroom, is a tooth fungus that is fruiting now.  This delicious (its taste is somewhat reminiscent of lobster) fleshy fungus is among the safest, most unmistakable of all of North America’s species of edible wild mushrooms; it looks like a cluster of white fungal icicles hanging off a decaying log, stump, or dead tree trunk.  Bear’s Head Tooth Fungus fruits on a number of different kinds of deciduous trees, particularly beech, maple, birch, oak, walnut, and sycamore.  Distinguishing between the species of Hericium can be tricky, but all species are edible and tasty.  Even so, I recommend having someone very familiar with edible fungi along to confirm identification the first time you harvest it.  (Thanks to Peter Stettenheim for photo op.)


Jumping Spiders

Jumping spiders are aptly named as they can spring more than 50 times their own body length to land on unsuspecting prey. They hunt actively rather than catching prey in a web and they have excellent vision, with four big eyes in front and four smaller eyes on the top of their head.  Jumping spiders have three-dimensional vision which allows them to estimate the range, direction and nature of potential prey, essential skills for a predator that catches prey by pouncing on it.


Pokeweed

Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) has been used by many people for many things over the years.  Native Americans used it to treat cancer, rheumatism, itching, and syphilis. They also ate young pokeweed shoots, which contain very low levels of toxins compared to the rest of the plant (and they boiled them several times).  At one time, juice from the berries was once used to make ink and dye.  Even today it is still used — by the food industry to make red food coloring and by farmers to reduce the swelling of cows’ udders.  Research has shown that pokeweed contains a compound that appears to enhance the immune system.  It has had some anti-cancer and antivirus effects in animals.  Herbalists use Pokeweed for all kinds of ailments, from hemorrhoids to bad breath.  Note: all parts of Pokeweed are poisonous, particularly the roots.


Goldenrod Spindle Gall

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There are three fairly well-known galls (abnormal plant growths caused by a variety of organisms) on goldenrod – the goldenrod ball gall (round swelling in stem caused by a gall fly), the goldenrod bunch gall (leaves at top of plant are bunched up into a mass caused by a gall midge) and the goldenrod spindle gall (elliptical stem swelling caused by a moth).  The amazing thing about insect galls is that not only do they provide shelter for the insect, but they are nutritious and serve as the insect’s food supply as well.    The spindle-shaped galls are home to the larval stage of the goldenrod gall moth (Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis).  In the late fall the adult female moth lays an egg on a low goldenrod leaf, where it overwinters. The larva, or caterpillar, hatches out the following spring and makes its way from the now dead leaf to a newly sprouted goldenrod, where it eats its way through a bud and into the stem.  The goldenrod plant reacts to this activity by forming an elliptical swelling, or gall, around the area where the larva took up residence. The larva feeds and develops all summer.  Prior to pupating, it chews a tunnel all the way through the gall (this is the only stage in which the moth has chewing mouthparts), and then spins a silk cover for it.  The larva then returns to the cavity in the middle of the gall and pupates.  In the fall the adult moth crawls down the tunnel,  bursts through the thin layer of silk and then mates and lays eggs.


White-throated Sparrows Migrating

 

White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) numbers are building in northern New England as they head towards the mid-October peak of their migration south.  Even though they are no longer constantly singing their “Poor Sam Peabody-Peabody-Peabody” song, which allows quick  identification, White-throated Sparrows’ white throats, striped crowns and yellow lores (the area between the eye and the bill) make them one of the easier sparrows to identify.  Don’t be surprised if you see this bird with a tan, and not white, crown.  There are two color forms, white-crowned and tan-crowned.  Interestingly, an individual bird almost always mates with a bird of the opposite color form. Males of both color types prefer females with white stripes, but both kinds of females prefer tan-striped males.

 


Yellow-shouldered Slug Moth

You could hardly be blamed for not recognizing that this bright yellow-green, half-inch-long, oval creature is the larval stage of a moth!  Possessing suction cups rather than prolegs, the Yellow-shouldered Slug (Lithacodes fasciola) glides, rather than crawls, over the leaf it is consuming.  Perhaps this is why these caterpillars show a preference for smooth-leaved trees and shrubs such as basswood, beech, cherry, maple and oak (although this particular individual was found on a witch-hazel leaf).  The Yellow-shouldered Slug pupates inside a cocoon all winter, and in the spring a small, brown moth emerges.


Grape Ferns

There are several species of Grape Ferns in the Northeast, all of which are true ferns, but they are not closely related to the plants we generally think of as ferns. Like other ferns, Grape Ferns do not have flowers; they reproduce with spores, not seeds. A single shoot divides into two blades – one of which is sterile and does the photosynthesizing, and one of which is fertile and bears spores. It is the resemblance of this plant’s clusters of spore cases to miniature clusters of grapes that gives this group of ferns its name. Cut-leaved Grape Fern, Botrychium dissectum, (in photograph) is one of the most common species of Grape Ferns in the Northeast. It’s roughly 6” to 8” tall, evergreen and has yellow spore cases and spores which are mature at this time of year.


Camel Crickets

Camel crickets are named for their humpback appearance. We don’t often see these wingless insects, for they prefer dark, damp habitats such as under stones and logs, where we don’t often look. However, when there are extreme weather conditions, such as excessive rainfall or the extended periods of hot, dry weather which we have experienced this summer, camel crickets are attracted to damp cellars and crawl spaces, giving us an opportunity to admire their impressive legs. Often mistaken for spiders, camel crickets do have long legs, but only six, not eight, of them. Their two hind legs are obviously longer and stronger than the other four, and enable this cricket to jump three feet high, a skill they use for defense against predators. A local blog reader reports that three nights in a row (camel crickets are nocturnal), due to the force of its jump, a camel cricket tripped a small have-a-heart trap set in their cellar for mice. (Thanks to the Choukas for photo op.)


Giant Puffball

This is the time for Giant Puffballs (Calvatia gigantea) to magically appear in fields and meadows overnight. Puffballs are different from most fungi, in that their spores are all contained within them, as opposed to being produced by gills under a cap. Giant Puffballs more than deserve their common and scientific names — they can reach a diameter of five feet and weigh up to 44 pounds! Some foragers do eat immature puffballs, but beware, as they closely resemble a poisonous mushroom at this stage, and once their spores mature, they can cause digestive distress. (Thanks to Knox & Harmony Farm for photo op.)


Black-and-Yellow Argiope Egg Sacs

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Black-and-yellow Argiopes  (Argiope arantia), often referred to as “garden spiders” are one of our most conspicuous orb web-spinning spiders — their webs are often two feet in diameter, and female spiders measure an inch and a half (males are about ¾”).  At this time of year, they (and many other spiders) are busy mating and laying eggs, which the females wrap in a multi-layered “sac” of tan silk that resembles a large marble in size and shape.  Inside a Black-and-Yellow Argiope’s egg sac are between 300 and 1,400 eggs.  In northern New England, the eggs hatch in the fall and the spiderlings overwinter inside the sac, where they remain dormant unless the weather warms appreciably (in which case they become active resort to cannibalism, there being no insects in the sac).  I have often wondered exactly when the eggs hatch, but have chosen not to tear open an egg sac in order to find out.  A bird, the predominant predator of spider egg sacs, did the deed for me recently, and tore into one, exposing the contents, which I photographed.


Bottle Gentian & Bumblebees

Bumblebees are nothing if not perseverant.  Prying Bottle Gentian’s (Gentiana andrewsii) petals open is a monumental task, and one that few insects, other than large species of bumblebees, attempt — much less accomplish.  The relationship of bumblebees and Bottle Gentian is an example of a mutualistic association — the bees benefit by having exclusive access to a bountiful and sugary nectar supply, and the plants benefit by attracting “loyal” pollinators that improve the chances for cross pollination.


Northern Watersnake

Northern Watersnakes can be found in rivers, ponds and bogs throughout New England, except for northern Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine.  They spend time foraging both day and night for fish (61% of diet), frogs and toads (21%), salamanders (12%) as well as insects and crayfish at the water’s edge.  (Snake jaws can separate at both the front and back, allowing them to eat impossibly large prey , such as the  catfish in Chris Crowley’s photograph.) They also spend a great deal of time basking on rocks and overhanging branches.  Northern Watersnakes can be formidable looking – they can grow over four feet long – but while they can be aggressive if threatened, they are not poisonous.  Watersnakes give birth to up to 70 (typically 20-40) live young between August and early October.


Silk Rainbow


Juvenile Broad-winged Hawk

Broad-winged Hawk chicks spend their first five or six weeks in the nest being fed small mammals, toads, nestling birds and a variety of invertebrates by their mother. They then fledge, but for the next two weeks these young birds continue to use the nest as a feeding (food is still being provided for them) and roosting site. At about seven weeks of age they begin capturing their own prey, and remain on their parents’ territory for the next month or two — just enough time to learn the ropes before migrating south for the winter, which they are doing right now (peak migration is mid-September).


Praying Mantis

Between being able to swivel its head nearly 180 degrees, and having two large compound eyes and three simple eyes, the Praying Mantis (Mantis religiosa) misses very few insects within reach.  Due to its green or brown coloration, the Praying Mantis is well camouflaged as it lies in ambush or stalks its prey.  Spines, tooth-like tubercles and a claw near the tip of each foreleg enable this predator to have a secure grasp on the moths, crickets, grasshoppers, flies, and other insects it consumes.  (A Praying Mantis in Pennsylvania was photographed successfully capturing a Ruby-throated Hummingbird!)  The pictured female is heavy with hundreds of eggs she will soon lay in a foam case she whips up.


Moose in Rut

The mating season for moose (Alces alces) is just starting, and it peaks around the end of September or the first week in October.  By this time bulls have shed the velvet that provided a blood supply to their antlers while they were growing during the summer.  Occasionally you see the remains of the velvet hanging from their antlers at this time of year (see photograph).  During mating season, bulls are rushing through the forest, seeking a receptive cow and engaging in mock battles with other bulls for the female’s attention.  A bull uses his antlers in these challenges, engaging in “antler-pushing” with other males.  He also uses his antlers as a tool for thrashing brush and for rooting plants from the bottom of ponds.


Witch Hazel Flowering

Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) is in flower, one to two weeks early this year, just as last year’s fruit is mature and ready to explode, sending seeds flying.  This shrub may have gotten its name from its association with dowsing, which was once thought to be a form of witchcraft.  (Witch hazel’s branches were once the wood of choice for dowsing rods, whose purpose is to locate water, or “witch” a well.)  The bark, leaves, and twigs of witch hazel are all high in tannins, giving this plant astringent properties.  It has also been used for any number of medicinal purposes, from treating hemorrhoids to laryngitis.


Great Egret & Post-breeding Dispersal

Although Great Egrets (Ardea alba) do breed sporadically as far north as Vermont, seeing one in northern New England is always noteworthy. The likelihood of a sighting increases as summer progresses, due in large part to the phenomenon of post-breeding dispersal. After young Great Egrets have fledged, individuals wander well outside their typical breeding range, as far north as southern Canada. The northward dispersal of juvenile birds peaks in August and September. (This Great Egret is about to dine on a crayfish.)


Giant Swallowtail Caterpillar Defenses

The Giant Swallowtail (Papilio crestphones) appears to be extending its range northward into Vermont.  It was first confirmed here two years ago, and more sightings have been made each summer since then.  The Giant Swallowtail is the largest butterfly in North America, with roughly a 4-6-inch wingspan. Because of the caterpillar’s preference for plants in the citrus family, this butterfly is generally is found further south.  However,  Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) is found in northern New England, and it is a member of the citrus family.  With this food source, and increasingly warm winters, the Giant Swallowtail may be here to stay.  The larval stage, or caterpillar, is as, or more, impressive as the adult butterfly.  Its defense mechanisms have to be seen to be believed.  The caterpillar looks exactly like a bird dropping (it even appears shiny and wet), making it appear unpalatable to most insect-eaters.   As if that weren’t enough, when and if it is threatened, a bright red, forked structure called an osmeterium emerges from its “forehead” and a very distinctive and apparently repelling odor to insect-eaters, is emitted.


Black Bear Signs & Hyperphagia

Black bears are omnivores as well as opportunists.  They will eat almost anything that they can find, but the majority of their diet consists of  grasses, roots, berries, nuts and insects (particularly the larvae).  In the fall, prior to going into hibernation, black bears enter a stage called “hyperphagia,” which literally means “excessive eating.”  They forage practically non-stop — up to 20 hours a day, building up fat reserves for hibernation, increasing their body weight by 35% in some cases.  Their daily food intake goes from 8,000 to 15-20,000 calories (that’s roughly equivalent to 70 McDonald’s cheeseburgers).  Signs of their foraging for grubs and beetles, such as the excavated base of the snag in the photograph, can be found with relative ease at this time of year, if you live where there are black bears.  If you do share their territory with them, be forewarned that they have excellent memories, especially for food sources.  Be sure not to leave food scraps or pet food outside (my compost bin was destroyed last year but I have no solution for that particular problem), and if you really don’t want any ursine visitors, it’s best to not start feeding birds until most black bears have entered hibernation – late December would be safe most years.


Monarch Butterfly Migration is Underway

Monarch Butterflies have begun migrating — the peak of their migration in Central Vermont/New Hampshire is September 3 – 15. Monarchs typically cycle through four generations during the breeding season. The final generation migrates to Mexico. Those individuals emerging in late summer live much longer than the Monarchs that are around in June and July (6-9 month life span vs. 6-8 weeks). This allows Monarchs in the East the time needed to migrate up to 3,000 miles (a trip that takes roughly two months) to central Mexico, live through the winter and to begin a return trip (making it only about halfway back), mating along the way. The succeeding generations of Monarchs continue the return trip back to New England, and with luck, the great (or great-great) grandchildren of the butterflies that are migrating to Mexico now will grace our milkweed patches next summer.


Snapping Turtle Eggs Hatching

Every fall, roughly 3 months after they’re laid, snapping turtle eggs hatch. The hatchlings’ gender is determined by the temperature at which they were incubated during the summer.   In some locations, they emerge from the nest in hours or days, and in others they remain in the nest through the winter.  When they emerge above ground, the hatchlings often do so within a few hours of each other.  Somehow (questions remain as to exactly how) they navigate to the nearest body of water, which can be up to a quarter of a mile away, and once there, seek shallow water .  Look for young hatchlings in small brooks near ponds that are known to have adult snappers.  (White object is part of the egg shell that surfaced with this hatchling.)


How Great Blue Herons Stay Cool

Birds have a number of ways of keeping cool, which is a good thing,  given the number of hot days we’ve experienced this summer, and probably for summers to come.  They don’t sweat, nor do they pant, but birds do have several  behavioral adaptations which reduce their temperature.  Often, while exposed to the relentless heat of the sun, Great Blue Heron nestlings resort to what is called gular fluttering.  They open their mouths and “flutter” their  neck muscles, promoting heat loss – an avian version of panting.   An even easier behavior to observe is the position Great Blue Herons will often assume on a hot day.  They droop their wings (see photograph) while standing, which allows air to circulate across their body and sweep away the excess heat.


Hickory Tussock Moth

 

Most tussock moths, such as this Hickory Tussock Moth (Lophocampa caryae), are densely covered with hair-like structures called setae that bear microscopic barbs.  Many people are sensitive to these setae and get an itchy rash if they handle a Hickory Tussock Moth.   Even touching the cocoon of a tussock moth can cause irritation, as the setae are woven into it.  Many tussock moths display warning coloration with their black, white, red, orange or yellow setae.  What looks like two Hickory Tussock Moth larvae in the photograph is actually one adult caterpillar (left) and its shed skin (right).   You can find these larvae feeding on hickory, walnut, ash, oak and many other trees in the woods right now.  After spending the winter pupating in a cocoon in the leaf litter, a small spotted, tan moth emerges.